Industry Terms

ABS Pipes
Anti-skateboarding kits/guards
Bitmap Files
Brush Finish
Camera Ready Artwork
Cast Iron
Catch Basin
CNC Router
Curb Stop Key
Deadbolt Guard
Drip Pans
EPS Files
Fire Connection Caps
Hot Stamping
Hydro Flushing
Industrial Adhesives
Knob Guard
Laser Engraver
Pipe Freezing
Pressure Sensitive Vinyl
Powder Coating
Proximity Card
PVC Pipes
Remote Opener
Re and re (re&re)
San Serif
Self-Inking Rubber Stamps
Sheet Metal
Stainless Steel
Vector Files
Vertical Drain Stack

ABS Pipes:  (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) a type of pipe common in plumbing.  ABS pipes are made from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene or in short ABS. ABS pipes have been successfully used by residential and commercial customers since several years. These pipes have the broadest temperature range from -40 degrees Fahrenheit to 180 degrees Fahrenheit. Due to this range, these pipes do not lose their impact resistance at extreme temperatures. ABS pipes are mostly preferred by people living in cold climates.

It is safe and easy to install ABS pipes because of their light weight. Apart from this, ABS piping is very beneficial from an energy use standpoint. ABS piping can be used in both ground and above-ground applications. You can also install ABS pipes in your outdoors. However, when installed outdoors, these pipes must contain pigments to protect them against ultraviolet radiations. ABS pipes can also be protected from UV radiations by painting them with a water-based latex paint.

Acrylic:  is a clear plastic. It resembles glass, but is stronger, lighter, and has many other advantages.  A generic term to describe plastics. Acrylic is characterized by its clarity and color ability. Optically clear, rigid material, resistant to some chemicals, not solvents. More brittle than Lexan, holes should be oversized and counter sunk fasteners should not be used. Any adhesive can be applied to this material. Mechanical fasteners are also commonly used for sheet stock. Acrylic is available in a variety of translucent and opaque colors, as well as clear.

Adhesive: A substance used to join or bond two materials together, by chemical or mechanical action. Generally applied as a liquid, or as a solid activated by heat or pressure.

Various descriptive adjectives are used with the term adhesive to indicate certain characteristics:

• physical (liquid adhesive, tape adhesive)
• chemical type (silicate adhesive, resin adhesive)
• materials bonded (paper adhesive)
• conditions of use (hot-set adhesive)

Aluminum:  is a relatively soft, durable, lightweight, ductile and malleable metal with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray.

Anodizing:  is an electrochemical process that converts the metal surface into a decorative, durable, corrosion-resistant, anodic oxide finish; available in various colors.

Anti-skateboarding kits/guards:
Chamfer anti-skateboard guards kit:  Anti-skateboard guards for use on walls and edges with a 45 degree decorative style.

Radius anti-skateboard guards kit:  Anti-skateboard guard kits for edged surfaces such as concrete walls and retaining walls. Made from anodized aluminum and mounted using security screws.

Raised block anti-skateboard guards kit:  The raised block anti-skateboard guard offers heavy duty protection for areas that require a larger deterrent.

Raised Diamondback anti-skateboard guards kit:  Raised design offers greater protection for railings.  Made from cast aluminum, each guard is attached using security machine screws and anti-twist barrel nuts.

Rounded Bullnose anti-skateboard guards kit:  Anti-skateboard guards made for larger diameter rounded edges like you might find in brickwork or cast concrete

Rounded Radius anti-skateboard guards kit:  Rounded radius edge guards fit snugly along surface edges that are slightly rounded such as precast concrete.

Alumalite:  Alumalite is a strong, aluminum composite panel with a high density, corrugated polyallomer (CPA) core that will not swell, wick water, corrode, rot, or delaminate due to prolonged water exposure. The surface is .016-inch high-gloss painted aluminum. An aluminum surface is required on both sides for rigidity and to minimize warping. Alumalite features a factory baked acrylic-painted aluminum faces for high gloss brilliance and is warranted not to crack, chip, flake or peel.

Alumalite is ideal for paints, screen print inks, and pressure sensitive vinyl which bonds securely to it. It has the same reflective surface as vinyl graphics, so the final sign is visually coordinated. Alumalite is strong and lightweight. It’s the same weight as .040 aluminum sheet metal, tipping the scales at just 24 lbs. However, Alumalite is over 50 times stronger for a 4′ x 8′ sheet. Alumalite has an average outdoor life expectancy of 10 years (when properly installed).

What are the recommended applications?  All outdoor applications including: post and panel, hanging, wall mount, multiple panel signs, point of purchase displays, cut-outs, kiosk, laser printing, silk-screening and more.  For a low cost alternative to Alumalite, see Econolite or D-Lite.

Alupanel:  is a type of flat panel that consists of two thin aluminum sheets binded to a plastic core.  It is very rigid and strong despite its light weight.  It comes pre-painted in any kind of color.  The core is commonly low density Polyethylene or an insulating material – which makes this aluminum unattractive to thieves as they cannot sell it for scrap because of the different core.   It is used in signage; works well outdoors and resistant to most weather, – strong material, usually fireproof, lightweight, rigid and has a very flat surface, easy to maintain.

Alupanel Cross Section Diagram

Astragal:  In architecture the term astragal refers to a convex moulding of a rounded surface, generally from half to three quarters of a circle. Interlocking astragals discourage thieves by making doors very difficult to pry open. Installing the right astragal for your door type, and installing it properly are both important to ensure effective security.  Available in 2 or 3 pieces and are installed the full length of the door, top to bottom; a device that prevents lock tampering

Augering:  is the process of clearing blockages in the sewer or storm pipes.  The augering cable can reach up to 300 feet.

Banners:  A graphic display or sign. Banners are usually made with applied vinyl or can be screen printed.  Banners can be rolled up and are used for indoor and outdoor purposes.

Custom vinyl banners and sign banners can be used to announce a new product, promote special events, advertise sales, rent real estate, thank your employees, generate excitement or attract and motivate customers.

The lettering for our text sign banners is rated for up to 5 years. Our vinyl sign banners include grommets to hang them as well!

Vinyl banners and banners signs are available in a variety of sizes. Common banner heights are: 2′ banner, 3′ banner, 4′ banner. The vinyl banner starts out on a roll and can be up to 120 long. We also make double-sided vinyl banners in 9 colors.

Bitmap Files:  Bitmap files are created using pixels. Photographs and scanned images are bitmap images. Software programs such as Adobe Photoshop and Photopaint are bitmap based programs.

Bitmap images, also called raster or paint images, are made of individual dots, called pixels (picture elements), that are arranged and colored differently to form a pattern. Images are therefore resolution dependent and can only be scaled minimally without degrading the image. Because a bitmap image is created as a collection of arranged pixels, it can be difficult and time consuming to edit or modify.

A bitmap is an array of dots. If you imagine a sheet of graph paper with some squares colored in, a bitmap is a compact way of representing to the computer which squares are colored and which are not. In a bitmapped font, every character is represented as a pattern of dots in a bitmap. The dots are so small (300 or more dots-per-inch, usually) that they are indistinguishable on the printed page.

Signs BC supports the following bitmap file formats: BMP (bitmap), JPEG (joint photographic experts group), GIF (graphics interchange format), TIF (tagged image file), PSD (photoshop), PDF (portable document format). We only accept bitmap images with a minimum resolution of 150 dpi.

Bollards:  Safety guards; a short vertical post – Concrete bollards are essential for pedestrian and vehicle traffic control. These bollards are a professional means of protecting your properties and businesses. They are an excellent security feature that prevents vehicles from driving through your storefront. See our wide selection of security bollards.

Removable Bollards:  For areas where you need protection against unauthorized traffic or intrusion, but still need to be able to access, the locking removable bollard is your best option.  Installation and removal is easy. To install, simply lower the bollard into the base, twist it to lock it in place, and apply the lock. To remove it, remove your lock, turn the bollard to disengage it, and lift it out of the base.

• Heavy duty exterior grade puck lock for maximum security against tampering and better aesthetic design over padlock styles bollard lock mechanisms

• Base plate is flush with the ground surface and has minimal gapping and no protrusions to prevent it from being a tripping hazard when the bollard is removed. The base plate is also removable to allow for easy cleaning of debris out of the base that can build up over time

• Handy carrying handles built right into the design allow you to protect large areas with chain-linked multiple bollards, and allow easier installation and removal

The bollard base including flanges is 12″ in diameter and will fit easily in a 12″ round or 12″ x 12″ square hole that can be cored, cut into concrete or asphalt. The base is 20″ deep and should be mounted in concrete with the top of the base flush with the top of your ground surface.

Braille:  A writing system using a series of raised dots to be read with the fingers by people who are blind or whose eyesight is not sufficient for reading printed material.

Assistive technology for blind and visually impaired people that uses 6 raised dots grouped in different patterns to represent letters and numbers. People read Braille by running their fingertips across the dots. Some screen readers also output content in Braille format using a Braille display.

Grade I involves a character-by-character translation of printed material; Grade II uses special contractions (much like the phonetic parts of speech) for messages. Grade II Braille is required by the Americans with Disabilities Act on some signs.

Brush Finish:  A satin finish, or a finish in between glossy and matte. Similar in appearance to fine scratches made by dragging a bristle brush across a surface. Commonly seen on stainless steel sinks.

Camera Ready Artwork:  Artwork supplied in its final form for printing preparation.  High in resolution, clean black and white.  Camera-ready artwork is artwork that’s ready for the camera that captures the dots and density of your artwork and then translates it into a screen, mold or laser template, or whatever based on the imprinting method being used. No matter what color you’d like your imprint to be, the type, artwork and graphic materials should be a very high black-and-white (B&W) contrast ready to be photographed on a process camera.

Cast iron:  Firm and unchangeable; a hard, brittle alloy of iron and carbon that can be readily cast in a mold and contains a higher proportion of carbon that steel does.

Catch basin:  a catch basin is a part of a storm drain or sewer system which is designed to trap debris so that it cannot enter the drainage pipes.  Catch basins are a large scale version of the traps used in home drains to accomplish a similar function.

Caulking:  is one of several different processes to seal joints or seams in various structures and some types of piping.  Also used on buildings to seal around windows.

CNC Router:  a computer controlled shaping machine. These are related to the hand held router. Instead of hand held routing, the tool paths can be controlled via computer numerical control. It is a computer-controlled machine for cutting various hard materials, such as wood, composites, aluminum, steel, plastics, and foams. It is one of many kinds of tools that have CNC (computer numeric control) variants. A CNC router is very similar in concept to a CNC milling machine.

Coring:  drilling large hole in concrete; also used to drill into concrete to install removable bollards.

Coroplast:  Coroplast comes in a variety of styles, all based upon the Coroplast high quality corrugated plastic sheet. Our standard sheet has been treated to allow for excellent adhesion quality to aid in printing for the graphics arts fields. It is also extremely durable because of its waterproof and resistance to stains and most chemicals.

The name Coroplast applies to a wide range of extruded twin wall plastic sheet products produced from a high impact polypropylene copolymer. Coroplast uses a copolymer resin in order to increase impact and low temperature performance. Chemically, the sheet is inert, with a NIL pH factor. At regular temperatures most oils, solvents and water have no effect, allowing it to perform under adverse weather conditions or as a product component exposed to harsh chemicals.

All Coroplast twin wall profile sheets can be modified with additives, which are melt-blended into the sheet to meet the specific needs of the customer. Special products that require additives include: ultra violet protection, anti-stat, flame retardant, custom colors, corrosive inhibitors, static-dissipative, etc.

Coroplast products are offered in a wide range of standard and opaque colors. The sheet is extruded in widths across the corrugation up to 96″ with gauges of 3mm and 10mm in thickness.

The Coroplast™ name is known throughout the Sign Industry for a Consistent High Quality Printable Surface. COROPLAST™ is the material of choice for today’s screen printing industry. COROPLAST™ is ideal for indoor and outdoor applications. It is tougher than corrugated fiberboard and lighter than extruded plastic sheet. It is waterproof, stain-resistant.

Graphic houses have been using COROPLAST™ successfully for years with some of the uses being: Retail Signs, Real Estate Signs, Political Signs, P.O.P.Displays, Bus and Truck Signage, Election Signs, Yard Signs, Agricultural Signage, Special Event Advertising and Trade Displays.

Curb stop key:  is used for shutting off water main valves . It is 6 ft long with a 5/8″ slot. It is painted safety yellow with 3/4″ welded steel tubing construction.

Deadbolt guard:  metal guard enclosure installed around lock to prevent tampering

DPI:  Dots Per Inch (or dpi) is the unit of measure used to describe the resolution of image files, scanners, or output devices, by measuring the number of separate pixels (or dots) represented either horizontally or vertically in one inch.

Generally, printers with higher DPI produce clearer and more detailed output. The DPI measurement of a printer is dependent upon several factors, including the method by which ink is applied, the quality of the printer components, and the quality of the ink and paper used. A dot matrix printer, for example, applies ink via tiny rods striking an ink ribbon, and has a relatively low resolution, typically in the range of 60 to 90 DPI. An ink jet printer sprays ink through tiny nozzles, and is typically capable of 300 DPI. A laser printer applies toner through a controlled electrostatic charge, and may be in the range of 600 to 1200 DPI.

Drilling:  A drill is a tool fitted with a cutting tool attachment or driving tool attachment, usually a drill bit or driver bit, used for drilling holes in various materials or fastening.

Drip Pans:  Water ingress into underground parkades can cost tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars to repair. Galvanized drip pans can be installed in a variety of areas to control water ingress and prevent corrosive water from damaging parked cars. We collect the dripping water and drain it away harmlessly to the floor.  Slow leaks will often evaporate in the pan.

Econolite:  The core is a high density, corrugated polyallomer (CPA), that will not swell, wick water, corrode, rot, or delaminate due to prolonged water exposure, making it perfect for all outdoor applications. The finished surface is .016-inch high-gloss white aluminum, with a light gauge aluminum backer. Econolite features a highly reflective, factory baked, acrylic paint surface that is warranted not to crack, chip, flake or peel. Colorfast 10 year limited warranty.

Econolite is an economical alternative to Alumalite, but with only one painted aluminum side. The other side is a light gauge, aluminum backer. When properly supported on 24″ center, Econolite can be used for post and panel and/or billboard applications. Cannot be used in all the same applications as Alumalite because Econolite’s aluminum backer is not as strong as Alumalite’s thicker, .016 aluminum backer. Econolite is best used in applications when all four edges of the panel are supported, such as wall mount signs, canopy, or supported post and panel.

Engraving:  Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. The result may be a decorative object in itself, as when silver or gold are engraved, or may provide an intaglio plate, when copper is engraved, or a relief print block when wood is engraved. Engravers use a hardened steel tool to cut the design into the surface.

Before the advent of photography, engraving used to reproduce other forms of art, for example paintings. Engravings continued to be common in newspapers and many books into the early 20th century, as they were long cheaper to mass reproduce than photo images. Engraving has also always been used as a method of original artistic expression.

Because of the high level of microscopic detail that can be achieved by a master engraver, counterfeiting of engraved designs is well-nigh impossible, and modern banknotes are almost always engraved. Many classic postage stamps were engraved, although the practice is now mostly confined to particular countries, and/or used when a more “elegant” design is desired and a limited color gamut is acceptable.

An engraver is a person who engages in engraving. The engraver can execute an original engraving as an independent work of art invented by him/herself, or, as a reproductive engraver, divulgate an idea expressed in a painting, drawing, statue, etc. invented by an artist other than the engraver.

EPS Files:  Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) is a standard file format for importing and exporting PostScript files. It is usually a single page PostScript program that describes an illustration or entire page. The purpose of an EPS file is to be included in other pages. Sometimes EPS files are called EPSF files. EPSF simply stands for Encapsulated PostScript Format.

EPS files can be generated by all drawing applications as well as most layout applications. Image manipulation programs like Adobe PhotoShop can also save bitmap images as EPS-files. Some printer drivers are also capable of generating EPS-files as well as PostScript files.

The EPS format (Encapsulated PostScript) was developed by Adobe as one of the file formats in its page description language, PostScript. It is a vector format (not bitmap), thus inherently scalable and moderately device independent, which moves easily across platforms (the language itself is ASCII code).

Think of an EPS file as its own little mini-document. When you place an EPS file into a page layout document it is like placing a page layout within a page layout. It is described using PostScript® – the same as the page layout document itself when it is sent to a PostScript device. It is a set of instructions within a set of instructions. Naturally, then, the fonts would be required to properly interpret the instructions within the EPS file.

Examples of EPS drawing programs are Corel Draw, Adobe Illustrator, and Macromedia (once Aldus) Freehand.

Fire connection caps:  Building fire connection pipes need to be operational all the time.  Foreign objects entering the hydrant lines via birds or children can prevent your building’s fire system from being operational in an emergency.  Caps are used to prevent birds from building nests in, or items being placed up the wall connections in buildings.  They are available in brass, chrome or plastic.

Fob:  A fob is a type of security token; a small hardware device with built-in authentication mechanisms.  A simple swipe in front of an access reader will open the intended location.  An advantage of this fob is that it does not require batteries and entry to a location can be tracked.

Galvanizing:  is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, in order to prevent rusting.  Galvanization can be done with electrochemical processes or hot-dip galvanization, in which steel parts are submerged in a bath of molten zinc – the galvanization is thicker using the hot-dip method.

HDU:  (high density urethane) HDU is a closed cell urethane that is made by pouring proprietary chemicals into a mold, after which a chemical reaction causes the material to foam. It is then cooled into sheets, usually 4’ x 8’, but larger panels are available, and in various thickness’. Different densities of HDU are available for various applications including 4, 6, 10, 15, 18, 22 and 30 pounds per cubic foot. The lower the density number the softer the HDU.

HDU is light weight and easily worked with standard woodworking tools: surfaces can be carved, scraped, routed, sandblasted or sanded. It’s durable. It’s water, rot, and termite resistant, and doesn’t need to be edge laminated.

Hot Stamping:  Hot Stamping can be defined as custom printing napkins, pens, key chains, etc. usually with a logo and promotional message. Hot Stamped impressions are especially nice looking. They can be bold colours or very expensive looking “metallic ink” because they are actually printed with melted plastic.

Hot Foil Stamping is a very versatile method of printing. Using foils (available on a roll) it offers instant dry printing without using any messy inks. Hundreds of colors and shades from metallic matte, gloss, pearl and even 22k gold are available.

Hot Stamping machines have electrically heated type holders. A type is a block of metal with a reversed raised letter or sign at the printing end. The operator loads the type holder with the appropriate reverse type, logo, illustration or die, and positions it in the machine with set screws.  When the type reaches the desired temperature, pulling a lever causes the hot type to be pressed against a strip from a roll of plastic (mounted on the machine), and a reverse image is “melted” onto the paper or other receiving item held position by the machine’s jaws.

The basic principle is similar to iron-on transfers. You can tell hot stamped materials by the especially vivid colours and slight indentation where the design is applied as opposed to top printing (smooth) or embossing (raised).

Hydro flushing:  uses the pressure of water to strike, soften, disintegrate, eject and collect the most stubborn underground debris in an effective cleaning process.  Hydro Flushing is a faster, safer, cheaper and more efficient means for cleaning underground utilities.  “Electric hydro flushing” is used for smaller lines up to 4” and the hydro flushing truck is used for larger lines.

Industrial Adhesives: Can be applied with caulking guns and can consist of single tubes or two tube epoxies that mix together as the adhesive is applied. Industrial adhesives can bond dissimilar materials together such as metal and plastic. The structural bonds created by such adhesives can be stronger than welding or using mechanical fasteners, and often this is the fastest and best way to put materials together during fabrication or installation of certain products.

Ink:  An ink is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for colouring a surface to render an image or text. Common perceptions consider ink for use in drawing or writing with a pen or brush. However, inks are used most extensively in printing.

Pigmented inks have the advantage when printing on paper that the pigment stays on the surface of the paper. This is desirable, because when more ink stays on the surface of the paper, less ink needs to be used to create the same intensity of colour.

Dyes, however, are generally much stronger and can produce more colour of a given density per unit of mass. However, because dyes are dissolved in the liquid phase, they have a tendency to soak into paper, thus making the ink less efficient and also potentially allowing for the ink to bleed at the edges, producing unsightly and poor-quality printing.

Knob guard:  metal guard around knob to prevent tampering – usually used on store room function knob locks, on back exit doors of buildings and storage rooms.

Lamacoid:  A brand name of engravable phenolic sheet stock

Lamacoid has become a generic term commonly used for specifying 2- or 3-ply, laminated engraving stocks and the nameplates, tags, or legend plates produced from the stock.

SignsBC Illuminated produces lamacoid with a precision cut laser engraver

Laminate:  A laminate is a material constructed by uniting two or more layers of material together. The process of creating a laminate is lamination, which usually refers to sandwiching something between layers of plastic and sealing them with heat and/or pressure.

The materials used in laminates can be the same or different. For example, by applying a layer of plastic film either side of a sheet of glass, the glass is said to be the laminated subject. The plastic is said to be the laminate.

Laminating paper, such as photographs, can prevent them from becoming creased, sun damaged, wrinkled, stained, smudged, abraded and/or marked by grease, fingerprints and environmental concerns. Photo identification cards and credit cards are almost always laminated with plastic film.

Laser engraver:  you can engrave text, logos and even photographs in a wide variety of materials. The focused lasing beam removes material from the surface of the part in a very controlled, precise manner.  Also used for cutting various materials.

Pipe:  A tube of metal, plastic, or other material used to convey water, gas, oil, or other fluid substances.  Plumbing dimensions aren’t always what they appear to be. A plastic pipe with a 7/8-inch outside diameter, for instance, is actually called a 1/2-inch pipe because it has a 1/2-inch inside diameter and pipes are usually sized according to their inside diameter (ID). This dimension is also referred to as the nominal size, the size you ask for at a plumbing supplier.

Pipe freezing:  Pipe freezing can be a fast, clean and efficient method of carrying out plumbing repairs and piping alterations without having to isolate or drain an entire water piping system.  Pipe freezing can be carried out on copper tube and other metallic and plastics piping systems to facilitate extensions to pipe work.  Pipe freezing prevents the need to shut down the water supply for an entire building – eliminating the risk of new leaks once you turn the water to the building back on.

Pressure Sensitive Vinyl:  This is the most widely used material of the vinyl sign business. Once applied, pressure sensitive vinyl looks just like a custom painted surface with only a fraction of the labor. It consists of a layer of colored, opaque or translucent vinyl material and silicone coated kraft paper with a transparent adhesive between the two. The kraft paper acts as a carrier and is eventually peeled away. It can also be obtained in various thicknesses (2 mil or 4 mil), with 2 mil being used more frequently as it is easier to work with and lasts longer. The range of metallic, fluorescent, matte, shiny, reflective, opaque or translucent choices is overwhelming. New vinyl products are constantly being introduced to achieve different effects and facilitate production.

This vinyl material is cut by a computer cutting plotter that contains a small knife which does not penetrate the backing kraft paper. The part of the image that is not desired is then lifted or weeded off from the paper. What remains will be the vinyl lettering or logo that will be applied to the finished surface. But, wait, not so fast! The image is then covered with a transfer masking tape that is designed for this purpose. This application tape is available in various sizes for your particular needs. The paper backing is then peeled away to reveal your graphic stuck to the masking tape backwards. Now the cut vinyl is ready to be applied.

The cut vinyl image can then be positioned in the appropriate area and on the surface desired. When in place, the transfer masking tape is removed and “Presto!” you have your finished product.

Pressure sensitive vinyl can be applied to almost any smooth, clean surface. As you scan your surroundings, the possibilities are astounding. There are just a few unacceptable surfaces, though. These would be rough concrete or brick, and latex painted wood board or plywood.

How is Vinyl Made?

Calendered Intermediate  This vinyl film is generally made in a 3 mil thickness. “Mil” means “one-thousandth” an inch. Thus 3 mils are three thousandths of an inch. Usually, the thickness refers to the film itself and not the adhesive that is applied. The adhesive can add another 1 to 2 mils to the thickness. First the raw materials (including resins, plasticizers, stabilizers, color pigments, etc) are combined and heated, producing “melt”. Then the melt is fed into a two-story high calendering machine that consists of a series of rollers. One group of rollers produces the rough gauge. The next group of rollers determines gloss levels and final thickness. It is important to note that calendered vinyl is manufactured in a continual web process. It’s made by putting continuous stress, pressure, and heat on the vinyl; it is literally pulled through the machine. The process resembles the way Salt Water Taffy is made; remember the huge arms that around and stretch and pull the taffy until it cools down? Because the film is stretched and pressured into its final form, it has little dimensional stability. This means that if extremes of heat and cold affect it, it will tend to shrink back to its original size. This caused adhesive ooze around the letters, as well as cracking and peeling. Calendered vinyl must be produced in large quantities due to the sheer size of the machinery involved. These large batches limit the number of colors that are available. It is this fast and economical process that establishes the lower cost of calendered vinyl for the signmaker.

Cast High Performance  This film is made in 2 mil thickness, then the adhesive is added. This thinner film is easier to mold over irregular surfaces and is easier to weed, especially those tiny letters and delicate graphics. There are two main reasons why 2 mil high performance vinyl is much superior to calendered vinyl. The raw materials are of better quality in cast films and the manufacturing process is totally different. There is virtually no stress, no stretching, and no pressure applied to cast films. The high quality cast vinyl raw materials are mixed and then poured out, or cast on the casting roller. The mixture is then transferred through rollers to the casting paper. Since the cast liquid vinyl is supported by the casting paper once the liquid leaves the rollers, very little stress is applied. Heat and pressure are not applied like in the calendering process. This means that the higher quality cast films are suitable for outdoor use and long exposure to extremes of heat and cold. Since the film is not forced into a size that it wasn’t originally made for, shrinkage, splitting, and cracking is significantly less than in the calendered vinyl films. Because casting machines are small in comparison to the mammoth calendering equipment, runs are short and a wider variety of colors are available in cast vinyl.

How to Choose the Right Vinyl for the Job

The first step in choosing the right vinyl is to determine whether or not the signage you are designing will be for indoor or outdoor use. If the sign will be indoors, the less expensive calendered vinyl may do the job. If the sign is to be outdoors or on the inside of an exterior door or window, a premium grade cast vinyl is the better choice. Why?

That’s because the cast vinyl will resist bubbling, fading, and peeling due to long term exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet rays. These rays cause eventual deterioration of both the vinyl and the adhesive. For most applications, 2 mil cast vinyl is the best choice. It conforms well to uneven surfaces, is more flexible, and has a longer life expectancy when exposed to harsh weather conditions. The quality of 2 mil vinyl’s adhesive usually matches the quality of the vinyl. Put simply, this means that premium 2 mil high performance cast film will stick better, longer, and faster than the adhesive on calendered vinyl. Lower quality adhesives as in calendered vinyl are more easily affected by moisture, solvents, and sunlight. This may cause the vinyl sign or graphic to turn yellow or curl.

Powder coating:  Powder coating is the technique of applying dry paint to a part. The final cured coating is the same as a 2-pack wet paint. In normal wet painting such as house paints, the solids are in suspension in a liquid carrier, which must evaporate before the solid paint coating is produced.  With powder coating, the items are baked in an oven to cure the paint.

Proximity card:  Proximity card (or prox card) is a generic name for contactless integrated circuit devices used for security access or payment systems. It can refer to the older or newer contactless RFID (radio frequency identification) cards, most commonly known as contactless smartcards. A simple swipe in front of an access reader will open the intended location.  An advantage of this card is that it does not require batteries and entry to a location can be tracked.

PSI: (pounds per square inch) is a term used to measure strength of concrete.

PVC:  Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a widely-used plastic. In terms of revenue generated, it is one of the most valuable products of the chemical industry. Globally, over 50% of PVC manufactured is used in construction. As a building material PVC is cheap, and easy to assemble. In recent years, PVC has been replacing traditional building materials such as wood, concrete and clay in many areas. Despite appearing to be an ideal building material, PVC has high environmental and human health costs.

PVC Pipes:  PVC pipes are made from chlorinated poly-vinyl chloride. They are also known as CPVC. Due to their countless benefits, PVC pipes are replacing other materials used for building and plumbing such as wood, metals, and concrete. PVC piping is most commonly used in cold water installations and drinking water systems.

Corrosion in pipes is one of the most common plumbing problems. This corrosion is caused due to the exposure of these pipes to moisture. PVC pipes are non-conductors of electricity. Due to this reason, they prevent corrosion. You can therefore install PVC pipes without any protective coating.

PVC pipes also offer resistance against thermal conductivity. For this reason, PVC pipes are considered ideal for thermal resistance as well as insulation applications. PVC pipes also provide you with protection against fire so they can be safely used in fire-prone areas. These pipes are capable of tolerating up to 140 degrees Fahrenheit temperature.

PVC pipes are also not prone to various oxidation reactions. Therefore, they are considered extremely durable. The life of PVC pipes is long as compared to ABS pipes because they are resistant to fracturing.

Remote Opener:  electronic device used to remotely open or close garage gates (aka: clicker).  This device is battery operated and can be used from a distance.

Re and re (re&re): Remove and Replace. This can mean either a particular part, or assembly was removed and replaced to access a certain area or component, or that the said part(s) were replaced with new part(s).

RGB:  The RGB color model utilizes the additive model in which red, green, and blue light are combined in various ways to create other colors. The very idea for the model itself and the abbreviation “RGB” come from the three primary colors in additive light models.

When written, RGB values in 24 bpp are commonly specified using three integers between 0 and 255, each representing red, green, and blue intensities, in that order. For example:

• (0, 0, 0) is black

• (255, 255, 255) is white

• (255, 0, 0) is red

• (0, 255, 0) is green

• (0, 0, 255) is blue

• (255, 255, 0) is yellow

• (0, 255, 255) is cyan

• (255, 0, 255) is magenta

Riveting:  is a technique used to join thin pieces of metal or plastic sheets; rivets are used in hinges on A-frames.

Routing:  cutting a groove or pattern not extending to the edges in a wooden or metal surface.

Sans Serif:  In typography, serifs are the small features at the end of strokes within letters. A typeface (font) without serifs is called sans-serif (from French sans: “without”), also referred to as grotesque (or, in German, grotesk).

In the Roman alphabet, serifs originated with the carving of words into stone in ancient Italy. Artisans would carve out a bit of extra space at the end of the long strokes of letters in order to prevent gravel and dust from collecting in the corners of the letters.

Examples:  Sans Serif: This is an example;  Serif Font: This is an example

Sawing:  cutting straight line in concrete/asphalt

Self-Inking Rubber Stamps:  The self-inking rubber stamp has a special mount that has a built-in ink pad and spring mechanism that automatically re-inks the die between impressions.

The rubber stamp flips up and down against an ink pad with each impression made.

Self inking rubber stamps use a water based ink, and require re-inking more often that pre-inks. Re-inking is a very simple process

Sheet metal:  refers to any metal that can be formed into flat pieces of varying thicknesses.

Sintra:  material is closed-cell, expanded plastic, high-density polyvinylchloride sheet. Sintra is a homogeneous material that allows the ease of cutting without regard for grain. At half the weight of solid PVC, Sintra may be stapled, nailed, riveted, glued, and thermoformed. Forming may be done on conventional forming machines. Because this material is not hydroscopic, it needs no drying pre-forming.

Sintra is available in 9 thickness’ 1mm-13mm all thickness’ are available in white, some thickness’ are also available in black & colors. A Sintra sheet size is 48″ x 96″. Cut to size sheet is available on request.

SINTRA® as described in our introduction is also fire resistant, water resistant, and resistant to certain chemicals. It will stay flat, yet it is flexible enough for exacting shapes and intricate designs. It provides a non-warping mounting surface that maintains uniform color throughout. Sintra material can be silk-screened and painted without priming.

Stainless Steel:  A form of steel containing chromium, resistant to tarnishing and rust. (link to stainless steel products on website – corner guards)

Substrate:  Substrate is used to describe the base material that images will be printed onto. Depending on the printing process and end use of the product, these materials include (though are not limited to) films, foils, textiles, fabrics, plastics, and any variety of paper (lightweight, heavyweight, coated, uncoated, paperboard, cardboard, etc.).

Trademark:  A trademark (Commonwealth English: trade mark) is conventionally a distinctive sign of some kind, whether that sign comprises a name, word, phrase, logo, symbol, design, picture, styling or a combination of one or more of these elements. A trademark is used by a business to identify itself and its products or services to consumers, and to set itself and its products or services apart from other businesses. A trademark is a type of intellectual property, and in particular, a type of industrial property.

The essential function of a trademark is to uniquely identify the commercial source or origin of products or services, such that a trademark, properly called, is used to ‘indicate source’ or act as a ‘badge of origin’. The use of a trademark in this way is known as ‘trademark use’ and a trademark owner seeks to enforce its rights or interests in a trademark by preventing unauthorized trademark use.

As any sign which is capable of performing the essential trademark function may qualify as a trademark, the trademark concept extends to include a range of non-conventional signs such as shapes (i.e. three-dimensional trademarks), sounds, smells, moving images (i.e. signs denoting movement, motion or animation), taste, and perhaps even texture. However, the extent to which such non-conventional trademarks can be protected or even recognized varies considerably from country to country)

Trademark rights, such as the right to exclusive use of a trademark, generally derive only through use (i.e.. actual use in the marketplace) or registration (i.e. filing an application and obtaining registration with the trade mark office) in a particular jurisdiction. Such rights will only apply in that jurisdiction, a quality which is sometimes known as ‘territoriality’. However, there are a range of international trademark laws and systems which facilitate the protection of trademarks around the world (see ‘International trade mark laws’ below).

Tube:  A long, hollow cylinder of metal, plastic, glass, etc., for holding or transporting something, chiefly liquids or gases.  The primary difference between pipe and tubing is how they are measured and what they are used for. Pipe is used as a vessel and is measured by ID (inside diameter). Tubing is usually structural and is measured by OD (outside diameter).

If you are at all unsure about getting the right material, make things perfectly clear by specifying ID for most pipes. In a minority of cases — flexible copper lines, for example — pipe is ordered by using the outside diameter (OD).  As a rule of thumb, the OD of copper is 1/8 inch greater than its ID, the nominal size. For plastic pipe, measure the OD and subtract 3/8 inch. For threaded and cast-iron, subtract 1/4 inch.

Vector Files:  Vector Files are files that are created mathematically and not with pixels. Software programs such as Adobe Illustrator and CorelDraw are Vector based programs. Signs BC supports the following vector file formats: EPS, PS, CDR (corel draw), AI (adobe illustrator), PDF.

Vertical drain stack:  drain line in a multi-level building for kitchen or sanitary disposal.

Welding:  the process of joining together metal parts by heating the surfaces to the point of melting with a blowpipe, electric arc, or other means.